Electrotechnics: #


Voltage. Electric potential difference

Voltage. Electric potential difference

Also the lines of force in the description fields are present also equipotential lines, and thus there is another characteristic such as the potential of the electric field. Imagine the scene uniformly distributed electric field lines that intersect the equipotential lines, each such line will have its value field potential. For convenient use of such a representation of the electric field pattern flat capacitor having two plates and a fully charged up to a certain maximum value. In such a capacitor is induced an electrical charge, and the space between the plates so be filled with dielectric gas such as air. Each side of capacitor has a certain amount of charge Q. Since capacitor plates are made of metal in which the charge carriers are negative type charges - electrons on the one plate will be an excess of electrons and another drawback. Thus, you can designate one as the electrode is +Q, and the other as -Q, and the electric field lines will be directed according to the rules of +Q to -Q. As a result, we get a picture of the image below.

Electric field lines

Electric field lines

The concept of an electric field arose when scientists tried to explain the long-range interaction that occurs between the charged objects. The idea of ​​an electric field was first introduced by physicist of the 19th century by Michael Faraday. It was the result of the perception of Michael Faraday invisible reality in the form of paintings describing long-range power lines. Faraday did not think in a single charge, but went ahead and expanded the boundaries of the mind. He suggested that the charged object (or mass in the case of gravity) affect the space and introduced the concept of the field of influence. Considering these fields he was able to explain the behavior of charges and thereby revealed many of the secrets of electricity. The electric field refers to a category of things that are seen not with the eyes and mind. Image of force interaction in the form of lines of different types, as well as a different color colorings - just a way to help the mind to see the invisible.

Electric field intensity

Electric field intensity

The standard metric units of measure the electric fields arise from its definition. Thus, the electric field is defined as the force is equal to 1 Newton (N) divided by the 1 Coulomb (C). Electric field intensity is measured in Newton/Coulomb anyway H/C. The SI also measured in volts/meter. To understand the essence of the subject as the electric field is much more important dimension in the metric system in the H/C, because in this dimension reflects the origins of such features as field intensity. Designation in the voltmeter does the concept of potential field (V) base, which in some areas is convenient, but not all. As mentioned above, the electric field is a vector quantity. In contrast to the scalar, vector quantity is not fully described, if not defined its direction. The magnitude of the electric field is calculated as the amount of force on any the probe charge within the electric field.

Static electricity. Triboelectric effect

Static electricity. Triboelectric effect

In the early 19th century the only type of electricity that people knew it was static electricity. The ancient Greeks had no idea of ​​the electric charges, but they worked out (accumulated) static electricity by friction of various substances of different nature (amber, hair, etc.) together. They did not think then that you can use electricity for lighting and power machines. One of the people who was able to find a connection between static electricity and electrical shock, the US government has been activist, scientist and inventor Benjamin Franklin. In 1752, Franklin, trying to figure out the mysteries of electricity, fly a kite in a thunderstorm, it was not safe. It was designed to catch the lightning electricity.



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